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I always have a UV or skylight filter on my lens for protection.
Often use a polarizing filter.
Sometimes use a ND filter (mostly for blurring running water).
Anything else can be done in Photoshop.
Unless there is a special effect I am going after that I cannot get in PhotoShop, I never use a filter. Speaking just for myself, it makes no sense to buy a $1000 lens then stick a $30 UV filter on it and call it "protection." Any filter is bound to degrade the image to some degree.
I think a polarizing filter would help you a ton on some of these pics.